Does Your Brain Have a Memory Limit? (Explained!) | Iris Reading
Does Your Brain Have a Memory Limit

Does Your Brain Have a Memory Limit? (Explained!)

Does Your Brain Have a Memory Limit

How many memories our brain cells can store depends on our brain’s storage capacity. 

The human mind does have a memory limit. The average adult human brain’s memory capacity is 2.5 million gigabytes. However, it doesn’t run out of storage capacity, per se. 

A single human brain has many different kinds of memories. And there’s no physical limit to the number of memories we can store. 

That’s because new memories keep on replacing the old ones. That happens because new neural connections are formed from lifelong learning. 

This article will tell you how much storage capacity your brain has. We will also tell you about the different things our memory depends on, and we will explain the different types of memory.

How much information can the brain hold?

The amount of information the brain can hold is a complex answer, as it depends on various factors. These include the type of information, the individual’s memory capacity, and how the information is stored and processed. 

The brain stores information in a complex network of neurons and synapses. Different types of information are stored in different regions of the brain. 

Visual and auditory information are stored in the sensory cortex. Memories and learned information are stored in the hippocampus.

A human brain’s capacity depends on several factors, including the individual’s age, education, and overall health.

Some people have exceptional memories. This phenomenon is called photographic or eidetic memories. These people can recall more information than the average person.

How information is encoded and stored in the brain also affects its capacity. Encoding information in an organized way can increase the amount of information that can be retrieved. This especially helps with long-term memories.

Is there a memory limit to our brains? 

The brain does have limits to its memory capacity. However, the brain does not “run out of memory” as a computer can run out of storage space. The neurons determine the memory capacity of the brain. 

The brain has an estimated 100 billion neurons. Each of them can have thousands of connections to other neurons. However, there’s still a limited number of neurons and synapses in the human brain. 

They can store trillions of bytes of information, just like a hard drive. But these neurons can become saturated with information over time. 

The brain can compensate for this by forming new connections. It also prunes unused connections and reorganizes information to allow for efficient retrieval.

It is also important to note that various factors influence the brain’s memory capacity. These also include certain neurological conditions. For example, conditions like Alzheimer’s disease can affect the brain’s ability to recall information. This can lead to memory loss.

What is the average memory capacity of a human brain?

Scientists estimate that the average adult human brain can store 2.5 million petabytes of information. 

Researchers have calculated this number based on the connections formed by different neurons. These connections are called synapses. Our brain cells are called neurons. And there are over 100 billion neurons that form our nervous system. 

Each neuron can form thousands of connections. This drives short-term memory and long-term memory. Using this information, we can estimate the “digital memory” of our brains. This is equivalent to 2.5 petabytes

A single byte contains 8 bits of information. And the human brain can store up to 2.5 quadrillion bytes over the course of life. It is equivalent to a million gigabytes. 

This is the information that we store in a lifetime. So, it accumulates as we gain new experiences. 

Stanford researchers estimate that there are over 125 trillion synapses in our brains. And our brains can transfer information efficiently over them. 

How does the memory capacity of a human brain work?

The strength of our neurons determines the information storage of the human brain. Thus, the size of the synapses in our cerebral cortex determines our memory capacity. 

The human brain sends out and receives signals throughout the body. These signals control different processes in our bodies. 

Many of the signals that the brain receives are stimuli. The brain processes these signals to understand the different experiences of our body. And these experiences are “engraved” in our memory by the brain. That’s what forms new memories. 

This process involves the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.


Encoding refers to the very first processing of information. This is where the brain takes in sensory information and transforms it into a neural code that can be stored. 

This encoding process is thought to occur in specific regions of the brain. These include the hippocampus and amygdala.

Some tips like learning how to speed read can help you encode information more efficiently while saving you time. 


Storage refers to the process of retaining information over time. This is thought to occur through changes in the strength of connections between neurons. This is called synaptic plasticity. 

Memories can be stored in different regions of the brain. This depends on the type of information being remembered. 

For example, declarative memories are thought to be stored primarily in the hippocampus. On the other hand, procedural memories are thought to be stored in the basal ganglia.


Retrieval refers to accessing stored memories and bringing them back into conscious awareness. 

This process involves the activation of specific neural circuits. These are the neurons originally involved in encoding and storing the memory. 

Neurons are comprised of a long branching part. This is called the axon and the dendrites. They are similar to how a road network looks. 

When we experience something new, it’s just like discovering a new road. A new path in our brain consists of a new synapse.

The human brain retraces that path when it tries to get that information back. It’s very similar to how you would take the route you recently discovered to go back to the place where you went. 

So, the more synapses our brain has, the more memories it can store. There are an estimated 86 billion neurons in an average adult human brain. Each of these can form up to 10,000 synapses in the cerebral cortex. 

That’s an extremely large number of memories that we can store. 

If you would like to learn more about how our memory works, check out this great explanation of memory.

How many years of memory can the brain hold?

It is difficult to determine the exact number of years. The ability to store and retrieve memories depends on many things. This includes encoding, storage, and retrieval processes. And it is influenced by factors such as age, health, and the type of information being stored.

The human brain can store a vast amount of information in memories. This can include personal experiences, sensory inputs, emotions, and learned knowledge. 

However, no specific number of years can be attributed to this capacity. Moreover, memories can fade or become distorted over time. This can reduce their accuracy and stability.

How many memories do we forget?

It is estimated that most people forget about 50% of the information they acquire within the first hour of learning it. And around 70% forget it within a day. 

It is difficult to calculate a specific number of memories that are forgotten. This can vary widely from person to person. And again, the number of memories that are forgotten can vary greatly depending on a variety of factors. 

These include the following:

  • The type of information being remembered
  • The length of time since the memory was formed
  • The strength of the memory
  • Individual differences in memory processes and recall 

For example, meaningful information is more likely to be remembered. In comparison, we are more likely to forget trivial or inconsequential information. 

Additionally, the strength of memory can be influenced by the emotions that are associated with it. Stronger emotional experiences lead to stronger and more lasting memories.

Another factor that can influence the number of memories that are forgotten is the process of decay. Over time, memories can fade or become distorted. This leads to a decline in their accuracy and stability. 

This decay process is thought to occur due to changes in the strength of connections between neurons. Some researchers also believe that the process of interference can cause it. That’s when new information can disrupt the retrieval of old memories.

But the good news is that you can improve your memory. Check out this article on how to improve your memory.

What types of memory are there?

Memory can be classified based on duration, type of information, and whether the information can be consciously recalled. 

There are several types of memory. Let’s take a look at some of them. 

Sensory memory

This is the very brief memory that holds information from our senses. It lasts only a few seconds.

It includes sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. 

Short-term memory (STM) 

Also known as working memory, this memory temporarily holds information while we actively use it. 

For example, when we are working on a task or trying to remember a phone number. It can last for about 20-30 seconds.

Long-term memory (LTM)

This is the memory that can last a lifetime. It has information that we can recall years after the event occurred. 

It includes declarative memory and non-declarative memory. 

Explicit memory

Also known as declarative memory, this is the memory for facts that can be consciously retrieved. 

It includes semantic memory, which holds facts and general knowledge. And it contains episodic memory, which includes personal experiences and events.

Implicit memory

Also known as non-declarative memory, this is the memory for skills, habits, and procedures performed without conscious awareness.

Examples include riding a bike, typing on a keyboard, or playing a musical instrument.

Flashbulb memory 

This is what is colloquially called a “core memory.”

This is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid ‘snapshot’ of a moment. It is often stored when surprising and consequential news is heard.

Is there such a thing as a perfect memory?

There is no such thing as a perfect memory. However, photographic and eidetic memories can be considered near-perfect. 

Memory is a complex cognitive process that various factors can influence. These include limited attention, emotions, and stress. All of these can affect its accuracy and reliability.

Additionally, some information is inevitably forgotten. It happens even with the best possible encoding and storage conditions. And our memory can be influenced by various biases and distortions.

For example, subsequent events can influence our memories, leading to “memory updating.” 

Our expectations, beliefs, and emotions can also influence our memories. This can lead to the creation of false memories.

Some people have what’s called an eidetic memory or a photographic memory. They can remember information or knowledge far more accurately. 

Eidetic memory

Eidetic memory is a rare ability to vividly recall images, sounds, or objects in great detail. It’s as if they were still present.

The term “eidetic” comes from the Greek word “eidos,” meaning “image.”

This type of memory is most commonly reported in children and is believed to decline with age.

Research on eidetic memory is limited. The exact prevalence of this ability is unknown. Some studies have suggested that only 2-15% of children have an eidetic memory. But these estimates may be overestimated.

Eidetic memory is often used to describe a person who can recall a high-resolution, vivid image of an object or scene.

The development of eidetic memory may be linked to the maturation of the brain’s visual cortex.

Photographic memory

Photographic memory is a term used to describe the ability to remember visual information accurately. Unlike eidetic memory, there is no scientific evidence to support the existence of a true “photographic memory.”

The idea of photographic memory is often romanticized in popular culture. However, it still needs to be a well-defined or widely recognized scientific concept before we can understand it. 

Instead, it is believed that the ability to recall visual information accurately combines several things. These include good visual memory, attention to detail, and the ability to retrieve information efficiently.

Training, practice, and repetition can develop and improve these abilities. For instance, this great course on maximizing memory can help you improve your memory capacity. 

Takeaway – Your memory is limited, but your ability to improve it is not

All-in-all, current research shows that we can store up to 2.5 petabytes of data in our brains. However, this might need to be addressed further. 

Scientists still need to learn a lot about how the brain works. The working theories around memory formation suggest that synaptic connections are heavily involved in forming memories. And that these connections are “strengthened” when there are certain factors that augment the memory. 

These factors include heightened emotional state, odorants, physical stimuli, etc. 

While human brain activity is being deciphered more and more each day, there are certain things that we know for sure. 

One is that memory isn’t perfect, but we can improve it. That’s right; memory training is an actual thing. Some people might be born with eidetic memory, but the ability declines with age. 

However, memory training can improve your information recall skills at any time. If you want to get started with memory training, check out this great course on maximizing memory by Iris Reading.

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  • Carson

    Under the section ‘How many Memories do we forget?’
    The first paragraph says ‘It is estimated that most people forget about 50% of the information they acquire within the first hour of learning it. And around 70% forget it within a day.’
    Your initial number refers to the amount of information lost, but your second number seems to refer to the number of people forgetting the information. Please clarify, do most people forget 70% of information within a day? Or is it that 70% of people forget 50% of the information within a day?

    • Elizabeth

      Hi Carson. That’s correct. 70% of people forget the information within a day. Most people forget about 50% of the information within the first hour of learning it.